Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)
Find our reference designs and recommended products for your innovative permanent magnet synchronous motor control (PMSM) control design
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A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a cross between an induction motor and a brushless DC motor with a higher power density than an induction motor. Due to their advantages, permanent synchronous motors are a very popular solution in electrical drives. On the following pages, we introduce you to the ideal solution applied to the PMSM recommended products for discrete design options and integrated motor controller ICs.
Fully documented and plug-and-play ready reference designs support you in getting your new innovations to the market in a short time as possible. High-performance motors are dependent on smooth rotation via the full speed range of the motor, full torque control and fast increase / slow down of the speed. The objectives of our proposed design solution for motor control drive systems are regulation, stability, robustness to the load disturbance variation, and energy reduction with a specific focus on battery-powered applications.
Check our recommended products and reference designs on the following pages depending on your power class. Find the link to design resources and support tools as well as ready-to-go boards and development kits.
Our integrated solution for rectifier solutions in industrial drives applications and general purpose drives are called EconoPIM™ modules (three-phase IGBT modules). Those products integrate a rectifier bridge, a brake chopper, and an inverter stage.
- One package solution: Rectifier bridge, brake chopper, inverter stage and NTC
- Customizable package: pin position and topology can be adapted to your individual specifications
- Supporting your platform strategy: covering various topologies, voltages (600 V-1700 V) and currents (15 A-150 A)
- Compact inverter design: increased power density based on Trenchstop™ IGBT4 technology with Tvjop = 150°C
- Reduction of mounting time/cost: PressFIT for main as well as auxiliary terminals to reduce the mounting effort
Depending on the level of integration and power required, Infineon offers a variety of IPMs (intelligent power modules). They feature numerous packages options, covering a large range of voltage and current classes. CIPOS™ IPMs are families of highly integrated, compact power modules designed to drive motors in applications ranging from home appliances to fans, pumps, and general-purpose drives.
Our advanced IGBTs, MOSFETs, next-generation Gate Driver ICs, and state-of-the-art thermo-mechanical technology are used for intelligent power modules. The modules improve system performance and energy efficiency by delivering increased power density, enhanced system ruggedness, and reliability.
The CIPOS™ Maxi IM818 family offers the chance for integrating various power and control components to increase reliability, optimize PCB size and system costs. It is designed to control three-phase AC motors and permanent magnet motors in variable speed drive applications such as low power motor drives (General purpose drives, Servo drives) pumps, fan drives, and active filters for HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning). The product concept is specially adapted to power applications, which need good thermal performance and electrical isolation, as well as EMI, save control and overload protection.
Three-phase inverter with 1200V TRENCHSTOP™ IGBTs and Emitter Controlled diodes are combined with an optimized 6-channel SOI gate driver for excellent electrical performance.
Learn more about Infineon‘s three-phase intelligent power modules
High-efficiency, high-density AC/DC conversion is needed for auxiliary power supplies. This means that high-frequency designs need to reduce the size of magnetic and other passive components. The XDPS21071 is a multi-mode controller with a built-in high-voltage start-up unit that can operate in DCM where using the adaptive current sense (CS) compensation. The start-up unit makes the IC power supply much more efficient and flexible during no-load operation.
The nano DSP in the controller is like the brain of the chip. It makes the controller much “smarter” than traditional hardware mixed-signal devices. The digital and analog peripherals of XPDS21071 support a variety of signals sampling and conditioning, making it ideal for flyback operation. It integrates ZVS, frequency-reduction (FRM), and burst mode (BM) to obtain the best efficiency throughout the entire line and load regulation. In addition, a one-time-programming (OTP) memory is integrated to provide a variety of programmable parameters to simplify the design-in phase. Unlike mixed-signal peers, which require a large number of external resistor/capacitor networks to adjust parameters, digitally configurable pins simplify the system’s BOM/PCB layout.
Learn more on Infineon‘s new high-performance flyback controller ICs
Field Oriented Control (FOC) is a method of motor control to generate three-phase sinusoidal signals which can easily be controlled in frequency and amplitude in order to minimize the current, which in turn means to maximize the efficiency. The basic idea is to transform three-phase signals into two rotor-fix signals and vice-versa.
The essential idea is the transformation of three-phase sampled current signals into two rotor-fixed signals and vice versa. In the rotor-fixed reference frame, the currents can be treated as stationary values and are easy to control. Using the inverse vector rotation the controller generated reference voltages can be returned to a rotating vector in the stator reference frame. The transformation from the three-phase system to the two-phase system is called the Clarke transform, whereas the one from stationary to rotating two-phase system is called the Park transform.
Feedback on rotor position and rotor speed is required in FOC motor control. The feedback can come from sensorless FOC or from FOC with sensors.
- Sensorless FOC derives the rotor position and rotor speed based on motor modeling, the voltage applied to the motor phases, and the current in the three motor phases.
- FOC with sensors determines the rotor position and rotor speed from rotor sensors, such as Hall sensors or an encoder.
Feedback on the phase currents can be measured in the motor phase, in the leg shunt or DC-Link shunt at the low-side MOSFET.
XMC™ microcontroller family is perfectly suited as a controller for various types of motors, such as Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM), Brushless DC Motors (BLDC), AC Induction Motors (ACIM), servo motors and brushed DC motors. Our free and easy-to-use DAVE™ Integrated Development Environment (IDE) comes with a large number of pre-defined, configurable and tested software blocks (DAVE™ APPs) targeting specific applications, enabling rapid prototyping and application development.
In this app for XMC1000 software, phase current sensing is expected from the leg shunt or DC-Link shunt.
Multiple Infineon innovations and unique features are included in the sensorless PMSM FOC software, such as:
- Optimized FOC (No Inverse Park Transform, lowest cost by eliminating external Op-Amp)
- SVM with Pseudo Zero Vectors (PZV), for single shunt current sensing
- MET (Maximum Efficiency Tracking) for a smooth transition from V/f open-loop to FOC closed-loop
- PLL Estimator, the sensorless feedback mechanism which requires only one motor parameter – stator inductance L, for rotor speed and position feedback (The rotor speed and position feedback of the motor are determined in the PLL Estimator software library. This library contains the Infineon patented IP and is provided as a compiled libPLL_Estimator.a file.)
Infineon‘s IGBT gate drivers include basic control and protection features support for an easy design of highly reliable systems. The integrated galvanic isolation between control input logic and driving output stage grants additional safety. Its wide input voltage supply range supports the direct connection of various signal sources like DSPs and microcontrollers.
The separated rail-to-rail driver outputs simplify gate resistor selection, save an external high current bypass diode and enhance dv/dt control. Active shut-down features ensure a safe IGBT off state in case the output chip is not connected to the power supply or an under-voltage lockout is in effect. Dual IGBT Driver ICs feature galvanic isolated dual-channel IGBT drivers and can also be used for driving power MOSFET devices. In a package two fully independent driver outputs with a current capability of typically, 2A are provided. Logic pins are 5V CMOS compatible and could be directly connected to a microcontroller. The data transfer across galvanic isolation is realized by the integrated Coreless Transformer Technology.
These products provide several protection features like IGBT desaturation protection, active Miller clamping and active shut down. Short-circuit clamping: During the short circuit, the IGBT’s gate voltage tends to rise because of the feedback via the Miller capacitance. An additional protection circuit connected to OUT+ limits this voltage to a value slightly higher than the supply voltage. Find the right gate driver for your synchronous motor control solution and get an overview of Infineon‘s gate driver ICs for MOSFETs, IGBTs, SiC MOSFETs and GaN HEMTs.
The permanent magnet synchronous motor is cross between an induction motor and a brushless DC motor. Like a brushless DC motor, it has a permanent magnet rotor and windings on the stator. However, the stator structure with windings constructed to produce a sinusoidal flux density in the airgap of the machine resembles that of an induction motor. Permanent magnet synchronous motors' power density is higher than induction motors with the same ratings since there is no stator power dedicated to magnetic field production.
Today, these motors are designed to be more powerful while also having a lower mass and lower moment of inertia.
Key characteristics of permanent magnet synchronous motor are:
- A close relative of the brushless DC motor
- Permanent magnet rotor and windings on the stator
- Sinusoidal back electromotive field (EMF) waveforms of the windings
- Controlled with sinusoid waveforms: matches the back EMF waveform of each winding
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