Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS)
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Uninterruptible power supplies – sources of continuous and clean power
Factors such as rising trend towards internet of things (IoT) and smart buildings, a growing number of data centers across the globe, increasing trend towards virtualization and cloud computing are expected to drive the UPS market globally in the coming years. Uninterruptible power supplies provide power to critical loads in the event of a power failure. Unlike emergency generators, UPS systems provide power immediately, but only for a short period of a few minutes – until a backup power supply comes on line or until the load completes its shutdown sequence. While continuity of power supply is an important aspect, it is not the only one: for example, a UPS system can also filter voltage spikes, voltage drops or noise, ensure a constant frequency or guarantee a certain power quality.
The applications of UPS systems are many and varied: they are used in medical, commercial and industrial facilities, as well as in many locations of the IT and telecommunications infrastructure, ranging from personal computers to data centers.
UPS systems can be classified into three main categories:
When AC-line voltage is present, a relay bypasses the inverter, which then remains off. The battery charger operates to maintain full charge. If the AC power fails, the relay switches the UPS output over to the inverter, which starts up after a short interruption of 10 to 20 ms to take over the emergency power supply.
Similar to the offline UPS, but with an AC mains conditioning function to regulate the AC output to compensate for low and high-line input voltages and ensure a more stable output voltage. The system is a combination of line conditioner and offline UPS.
The AC input is converted to DC when the battery is charged and then converted back to AC so that if the AC line fails, the system seamlessly switches to battery power and the output power continues without interruption. Such systems provide a stable and clean AC output under all conditions, but there is an inherent loss of efficiency in the conversion stages. More sophisticated systems are able to mitigate this by partially bypassing the two conversion stages during AC line operation so that only a small portion of the power flows through them. If AC input fails, the inverter stage can take the full load without interrupting the output.
Parametric Product Finders
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