A great variety of designs has been developed to meet the needs of the wide power
range and range of reverse blocking voltages. At the lower end of the power range, with
reverse blocking voltages of 600V to 1.2kV, solutions with discrete IGBTs, for example
in the TO247 package, can be found just as often as IGBT modules and IPMs
(intelligent power modules) for soldering into printed circuit boards. IPMs are power
semiconductor modules with integrated electronics that perform gate drive and signal
processing tasks. Standard IGBT modules predominate in the medium power range,
while robust IGBT modules occupy the high performance end of the range.
shows different standard designs by reverse blocking voltageand current class.
However, the central aspect of all designs is the semiconductor chip, which serves to
switch a current and block a voltage. Power dissipation occurs during this process. The
blocking losses are negligible in comparison to the switching and conduction losses of
the power semiconductor, which are several powers of magnitude greater. In principle,
three physical variables describe the main features that all power semiconductor
componentsmust have: Current I, voltageUandpower P. Theseare referred toas:
Current handling capacity (ampacity)
Each manufacturer has its own unique way of implementing the observation of these
essential points. Thesewill beexamined inmore detail in the following section.
The essential principles of a power electronics component with a DCB
2.2 Materials for the constructionof IGBTmodules
The construction of IGBT components is based on their electrical properties but also,
and more importantly, on the thermal conditions, i.e. essentially, the storage and
operating temperatures that can cover a temperature range from as low as -55°C at the
lower end and up to 175°C (status: 2010) at the upper end. The materials used must
function perfectlywithin the entire temperature range. Plastics, ceramics, metals (mainly
copper and aluminium) and silicone gels have towork reliably, both on their own and in
combinationwith othermaterials, without impairing theactual semiconductor chip.
Asmentioned in the introduction to this chapter, a variety of different concepts are used
to manufacture power electronics components for different voltage and current ranges.
Apart from the baseplate, DCB and the semiconductors, discrete IGBTs and IGBT
DCB= direct copper bonded. Formore information, see chapte