2 Constructionof IGBT components
having described the principles of power semiconductor technology, it is
now time to look at the component that is actually used. Basically, "component" means
one or more power semiconductors in a package, inwhich the package and connection
technology are just as important as the characteristics of the power semiconductor.
Power semiconductor technology did not become possible until the internal and external
connection technologies were in place and it was possible to dissipate heat from
semiconductors. For it to be practicable, the components also had to be robust and
durable. In traction application
for example, lifetimes of 20 years or more are required
with the need for a high power cycling capability. At the other end of the scale, industry
standards of 68000 operating hours determine the lower limit of robustness for standard
Whenever power semiconductor components are constructed, there is interplay
between mechanical, electrical and thermal factors. This means that the apparent
simplicity of a power electronics component belies its great complexity, which
profoundly influences the characteristics and reliability of the total system to be created.
As this book focuses on IGBT technologies, the power and voltage range covers power
of several 100W to MW and reverse blocking voltages of 600V to the latest, 6.5kV, as
described in chapte
This wide range is covered by a large number of components.
Components and/or package designs have a very long product life once they have
become established in the market. The best example is the "62mm IGBT module"
which is part of almost everymanufacturer's portfolio. The number of pieces sold is still
increasing, despite the fact that it was introducedaround20 years ago.
Standarddesigns based onblocking voltage and nominal current rating
Traction applications are those involving a high power cycling load, typically trains and railway vehicles, but also
trolleybuses and utility vehicles, including tractors, construction vehicles, buses and trucks.
The term "62mm IGBT module" is derived from the width of the baseplate, which is approximately 62mm by