Financial and Technology Glossary


Comprehensive term for the manufacture and processing of wafers with a diameter of 300 millimeters.

Manufacturing technology can be described by feature size, such as 90, 65, or 40 nanometers. The smaller the structures, e.g. lines and pitches, the smaller the chip and the cheaper its manufacturing. The 40 nanometer technology succeeds the 65 nanometer technology, which followed the 90 nanometer technology.


The anti-lock braking system is an electronic vehicle safety feature that prevents the wheels from locking during heavy braking.

Alternating Current (AC) to Direct Current (DC) conversion. This is a generic term for power supplies in which alternating current from the mains is converted to direct current, which often then needs to be precisely converted to a lower current (see also “DC-DC conversion”).

Earnings per share in accordance with IFRS are influenced by amounts relating to purchase price allocations for acquisitions as well as by other exceptional items. In order to enable better comparability of operating performance over time, Infineon computes adjusted earnings per share by excluding extraordinary effects including the tax effect on them.

American Depositary Shares – ADSs are U.S.-traded securities represented by an American Depositary Receipt for non-U.S. issuers. These securities simplify the access to U.S. capital markets for non-U.S.-based companies, and in turn provide U.S. investors with investment opportunities in non-U.S. securities. Since the delisting from the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), the Infineon ADSs have been traded over the counter on the OTCQX International Premier market as a sponsored Level 1 program with the ticker symbol IFNNY.

“Mixed-signal” is a generic term for integrated circuits that operate simultaneously with analog and digital signals. Owing to similar requirements in terms of development and manufacturing processes, they are generally grouped together with integrated circuits operating exclusively with analog signals, hence giving rise to the combination “analog-mixed-signal”.

Application Specific Integrated Circuit. Logic IC specially constructed for a specific application and customer; implemented on an integrated circuit.

An entity in which the Company has significant influence, but not a controlling interest, over the operating and financial management policy decisions of the entity. Significant influence is generally presumed when the Company holds between 20 percent and 50 percent of the voting rights.

Application Specific Standard Product. Standard product designed for a specific use that can be used by many customers; implemented on an integrated circuit.

Infineon brand name for the 32-bit multicore automotive microcontroller family.

Authentication means the ability to prove one’s own identity, i.e., proof of the authentic original. However, authentication does not necessarily refer to people only, but also to any tangible or intangible object, such as a device or an electronic document. A user can be authenticated in any one of three different ways: 1.) By providing a certain piece of information, i.e., the user knows something, such as a password; 2.) Through the use of a possession, i.e., the user possesses something, such as a key; 3.) Through the direct presence of the user, i.e., the user is someone or something, such as in the form of a biometric feature.


The part of the semiconductor manufacturing process that happens after the wafer has left the cleanroom (frontend manufacturing). This includes testing the chips at wafer level, repairing the chips if necessary, dicing the wafers and packaging the individual chips. There is a growing trend among semiconductor manufacturers to outsource the assembly, and sometimes even the testing, to independent assembly companies. Much of the assembly capacity is based in the Pacific Rim countries.

A bare die is a single, unpackaged chip. Bare die business means the sale of fully processed, unpackaged chips. The packaging and subsequent testing of the packaged chips is performed by the customer. Bare die business is mostly conducted with IGBT module manufacturers that produce their own modules but not their own semiconductors.

A power bipolar transistor is a specialized version of a bipolar transistor that is optimized for conducting and blocking large electric currents (up to several hundred amperes) and very high voltages (up to several 1,000 volts). In industry, the power bipolar transistor – like the power MOSFET (see MOSFET) often used as an alternative – constitutes an important industrial semiconductor component for influencing electric current.

Information unit; can take one of two values “true”/“false” or “0”/“1”.

The breakthrough voltage for semiconductor components is the voltage that, when exceeded, the current increases sharply and can ultimately lead to the destruction of the component. The breakthrough voltage can be determined by the doping of the semiconductor layers.

An important type of electric motor is the so-called brushless DC motor (BLDC motors). Commutation in BLDC motors is performed electronically, depending on the rotor position, the rotor speed and the torque. The rotor position and torque can be measured via sensors, such as magnetic field sensors. Depending on this positional information, the windings, which generate the torque in the rotor, are controlled via appropriate power semiconductors.

The electronic commutation does not cause wear and tear in BLDC motors, such as in standard DC motors. Moreover, BLDC motors do not require maintenance. Major advances in the field of power electronics and circuit design in recent years have made it possible to manufacture BLDC motors at a reasonable market price.

Unit of information in data processing components. One byte is equivalent to eight bits (see bit).


Legal separation of business operations (e.g. business units).

The cash-effective balance arising from inflows and outflows of funds over the fiscal year. The Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows is part of the Consolidated Financial Statements and shows how the Company generated cash during the period and where it spent cash, in terms of operating activities (cash the Company made by purchasing/selling goods and services), investing activities (cash the Company spent for investment, or cash it raised from divestitures), and financing activities (cash the Company raised by selling stocks, bonds and loans or spent for the redemption of stocks or bonds).

Cloud computing is the provision of processing capacity, data storage, network capacity and ready-to-use software via a network with supply matched dynamically to demand. The IT infrastructure functions accessed appear remote and opaque from the user’s perspective, as if enveloped in a cloud. The remote systems of the cloud are accessed via a network, usually the internet, using a terminal such as a netbook or tablet (see tablet).

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. Standard semiconductor manufacturing technology used to manufacture microchips with low power usage and a high level of integration.

Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, generally known as Common Criteria for short, constitute an international standard for evaluating and certifying the security of computer systems with regard to data security. The Common Criteria define seven levels of reliability (Evaluation Assurance Level, EAL1 to EAL7, i.e., the highest level), which describe the correctness of the implementation and the depth of inspection of the system being evaluated.

In contrast to silicon-based semiconductors, compound semiconductors consist of several chemical elements. The combination of materials from the chemical main group III (e.g. gallium) and V (e.g. nitrogen) have the electrical conductivity of semiconductors. This also applies to the combination of materials from the main group IV (carbon, silicon). These compound semiconductors (e.g. gallium nitride or silicon carbide) are therefore of highest importance in technical applications in semiconductor technology, especially for power semiconductors.

Control unit that can convert AC voltages of various rates and frequencies. This is achieved by means of power electronics. Converters are used in wind turbines, for example, in order to feed fluctuating wind energy into the power network with a voltage of constant frequency. In electric drive technology, for example in engine controllers and trains, a converter is used to generate an output voltage of variable, load-dependent frequency from a mains supply of constant frequency.

Convertible notes/bonds are interest-bearing securities which normally – in addition to the right to receive interest and repayment of the nominal amount – give the bearer a conversion option. During the term of the option (conversion period), the bearer can exchange the convertible bond/note for a specified number of shares of the issuing entity. The conversion ratio is stipulated and is typically adjusted for transactions affecting the shareholders, such as dividend payments. If the bondholder/noteholder does not convert the bond/note into shares during the conversion period, the issuer redeems the bond/note at the end of the term at its nominal amount.

High-voltage power transistor for voltages from 300 to 1,200 V.


Deutscher Aktienindex – The German Stock Index tracking the 30 major German companies traded on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, in terms of order volume or market capitalization.

Direct Current (DC) to Direct Current (DC) conversion. A high DC input voltage is converted to a mostly lower, highly precise DC output voltage. The DC-DC conversion is usually positioned on the motherboard in close proximity to the electrical consumer. These consumers can be, for example, the microprocessors of a PC or server, the graphics controller of a graphics card or the network processor of a telecommunications facility.

Since tax laws often differ from the recognition and measurement requirements of financial accounting standards, differences can arise between (a) the amount of taxable income and pre-tax financial income for a year and (b) the tax bases of assets or liabilities and their reported amounts in financial statements. A deferred tax liability and corresponding expense results from income that has already been earned for accounting purposes but not for tax purposes. Conversely, a deferred tax asset and corresponding benefit results from amounts deductible in future years for tax purposes but that have already been recognized for accounting purposes.

A measure of a pension plans’ liability at the calculation date assuming that the plan is ongoing and will not terminate in the foreseeable future.

A financial instrument that derives its value from the price, price fluctuations or expected price of an underlying asset (e.g. a security, currency or bond).

A driver assistance system is an electronic system integrated into a vehicle. It supports the driver in his driving task by providing information and warnings and – if designed for this – by actively intervening with the driving in a regulatory capacity. The driver has to consciously activate or deactivate the system. The driver assistance system can be overruled by the driver at any time.


A nonvolatile memory that is integrated on a chip together with a microcontroller processor core. The nonvolatile memory contains the program code.

From the Greek epi “upon” and taxis “arrangement” or “orientation”. Epitaxy is a form of crystalline growth that occurs both in nature (such as in minerals) and in the technical world. In semiconductor technology, epitaxy is the artificial growth of crystalline layers on a substrate, which is usually a wafer. Epitaxy enables various doping profiles for transistors to be created, which are not feasible using other methods such as diffusion or ion implantation.

Earnings Per Share. Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. For the calculation of diluted earnings per share the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding is increased by all additional ordinary shares that would have been outstanding if potentially dilutive instruments had been converted into ordinary shares.

Electric Power Steering is an electrically-driven power steering system, which is equipped with an electric motor as opposed to hydraulically driven systems. The advantage is that the power steering can be tailored to suit the current requirement. In other words, it is only activated as needed during steering operations, which leads to greater fuel economy compared with hydraulic power steering systems.

Valuation method for interests in associated companies in which the investor has the ability to exercise significant influence over the investee’s operating and financial policies.

Electrostatic discharge. ESD is a spark or disruptive discharge caused by a large potential difference in an electrically isolating material that causes a very short, high electrical current impulse capable of destroying electronic devices such as mobile telephones. The cause of the potential difference is mostly a static electricity charge, which can happen, for example, when walking over a carpet and can charge a person with up to 30,000 volts.

Electronic Stability Control. A vehicular technology system that uses sensors and computers to brake individual wheels in order to prevent skidding.

European New Car Assessment Programme. The Euro NCAP carries out crash tests and provides automobile buyers with a realistic, independent assessment of the safety features of many of the most sold vehicles in Europe. Euro NCAP was founded in 1997 and is meanwhile supported by seven European governments as well as automobile and consumer organizations from all EU states.

A decimal prefix for usage in the international system of units, Exa stands for 1018 = 1 quintillion, abbreviated "E", for example exabyte (EByte).


Flexible AC Transmission System – control systems used in electrical engineering. They are used in the field of electrical power supply to specifically control power transmission and distribution in AC networks, in which in principle components of power electronics and therefore power semiconductors such as IGBT modules are used. The controlling of power transfers can be implemented in alternating current networks by changing the idle and active power by means of capacitor batteries or compensation coils.

The fair value is defined as price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

Firmware is software that is embedded in electronic devices. It is mostly embedded in the memory of a microcontroller and cannot usually be replaced by the user. The term derives from the fact that firmware is functionally firmly connected with the hardware, which means that neither one can function without the other. It occupies an intermediate position between hardware and the application software.

A forward transaction taking place on a set future date with individually negotiated contract terms where the delivery and payment of a security is effected with the rate set on the day the transaction is concluded; in the case of a foreign exchange forward, the exchange of one currency for another at a fixed rate.

Cash flow from operating and investing activities from continuing operations excluding cash flows related to the purchase or sale of financial investments.

Frontend process is the designation for all process steps in cleanrooms that the entire wafer must complete. These are lithography, diffusion, ion implantation and application of circuitry levels. Some stations must be completed a number of times. At the end of the frontend process, the wafer may have been through as many as 500 individual process steps. After the conclusion of the frontend manufacturing, the
processed wafers are transferred to backend manufacturing for testing and packaging (see Backend manufacturing).


Gallium nitride (abbreviated to GaN) is a compound semiconductor material made from gallium (chemical symbol Ga) and nitrogen (chemical symbol N). GaN is used for components including radio-frequency power MOSFETs (see MOSFET) on account of the material’s special properties (such as good thermal conductivity and high electron mobility).

A decimal prefix for usage in the international system of units, Giga stands for 109 = 1 billion, abbreviated to "G", for example gigabyte (GByte).

Giant Magneto-Resistance. The GMR effect is utilized in sensors for the purpose of measuring magnetic fields. GMR sensors are employed in a range of applications, e.g. as steering angle sensors in automobiles.

An intangible asset of the Company that results from a business acquisition, representing the excess of the purchase price (cost) paid for the acquired business over the fair value of the separately identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingencies assumed. Under IFRS, goodwill is not reduced through scheduled amortization, but rather written down to its fair value if impaired. An impairment assessment is performed at least once a year.

Global Positioning System. Satellite-based location identification and positioning system based on the transit time differences of received signals.

Total of cash and cash equivalents plus financial investments.

Revenues less cost of goods sold.


A sensor based on the Hall principle, used for measuring magnetic fields, named after the US physicist Edwin Herbert Hall (1855 – 1938). Hall sensors are used in automobiles, for example, for detecting pedal positions or for measuring the speed at which shafts rotate.

Hertz (Hz) is the unit for frequency, and is named after the German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857 – 1894). The Hertz determines the number of oscillations per second, or more generally speaking, the number of repetitive processes per second. Frequently used units are kilohertz (one thousand oscillations per second), megahertz (one million oscillations per second) and gigahertz (one billion oscillations per second).

Hybrid electric vehicle/electric vehicle: collective terms for vehicles powered partly or entirely by an electric motor (see hybrid car).

High-voltage direct-current transmission. HVDC transmission is a method of transmitting electrical energy at high direct-current voltages of up to 800,000 volts over distances of more than 1,000 kilometers. HVDC transmission is also used for connecting offshore wind farms to the electricity grid on the mainland.

A hybrid car is usually understood to be a motor vehicle that is driven by at least one electric motor, as well as a combustion engine. The hybrid drive is used in standard car construction to enhance efficiency, reduce consumption of fossil fuels or increase performance at lower engine speeds. In full hybrid cars the vehicle can be driven solely by the electric motor. In mild hybrid cars, the electric motor is simply used to support the combustion engine, for example when accelerating.

The word “hybrid” comes from the Greek for “mixed” or “originating from two different sources”. It has come to be used to denote the heart of a new drive technology in the automotive industry: hybrid vehicles operate with a combination of a diesel or gas engine and an electric motor.


Integrated Circuit. Electronic Component parts composed of semiconductor materials such as silicon; numerous components, including transistors, resistors, capacitors and diodes can be integrated into ICs and interconnected.

International Financial Reporting Standards; Infineon prepares its Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with IFRS, as adopted by the European Union.

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Module. IGBTs are semiconductor components used increasingly in power electronics due to their robustness, high blocking voltage, and their ability to be triggered with negligible power. Modules are formed using several IGBTs in parallel within a single casing. These modules are used to drive electric motors both in automotive and industrial applications. Motor speed and torque can be regulated along a gradual scale. Trains such as Germany’s ICE and France’s TGV use IGBT modules for an efficient and rapid electrical drive control.

Industrial Internet, in Germany commonly referred to as “Industrie 4.0”, describes the gradual evolution towards the smart, efficient and flexible factory of the future. It is characterized by high degrees of automation, deep horizontal and vertical integration of production and logistics processes, and the use of advanced “big data” analytics. Or simply put: Industrial Internet = Industrial Automation + Internet of Things (see Internet of Things).

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects that contain embedded electronics to compute, sense, actuate and communicate. There is no clearly defined “IoT market”, instead the term IoT describes an ongoing and long-term trend that affects many applications, some of which exist today with different names and many additional applications that might exist sometime in the future. For Infineon we currently see IoT-related opportunities mainly in mobility, industry, energy, consumer and ICT (Information and Communication Technology) infrastructure markets.

Integrity Guard (IG) is a revolutionary security technology designed for chip cards and security applications, with which Infineon is ringing in a new era in the field of hardware-based security. IG was specially developed for sophisticated, long-life applications such as payment cards and government identification documents. IG enables a security controller for the first time to provide complete error detection and comprehensive encryption of all chip functions across the entire data path within the chip. For this reason it is known as “digital security”. IG is used in the security controllers of the SLE 77 and 78 families and has won numerous international awards.

An inverter, also called a DC/AC converter, is an electrical device for converting DC voltage into AC voltage, or direct current into alternating current. Inverters are used in solar power plants, for example, for converting the DC voltage generated in the solar modules into AC voltage, which is then fed into the electricity network.

Inverterization is a technology trend that refers to an inverter-based motor drive intended to operate an electric motor at variable speed for the sake of improved efficiency. Main job of the inverter is to control the speed and torque of the motor to match work requirements.

ISO 26262 is an ISO standard for safety-related electrical and electronic systems in various types of vehicle. ISO 26262 defines a procedure model together with required activities and methods to be used in development and production. The implementation of the standard is designed to guarantee the functional safety of systems that include electrical and electronic components in vehicles. The standard is used by carmakers, automotive suppliers and testing institutions.

ISO/IEC 27001 is the internationally leading standard for information security management systems (ISMS). It applies to private enterprise companies, companies in the public sector, and nonprofit organizations, where it defines how an information security management system must be introduced, implemented, monitored, and improved. ISO/IEC 27001 offers a systematic, structured, and risk-based approach in order to safeguard confidential data, the integrity of business data as well as to increase the availability of company IT systems.


A contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties undertake an economic activity that is subject to joint control.


A decimal prefix for usage in the international system of units, kilo stands for 103 = 1,000, or abbreviated to "k". In the world of information technology, Kilo stands for 210 = 1,024, or "K" for short, e.g. kilobyte (KByte).


Laterally Diffused MOS transistor. The increasingly stringent standards concerning the electrical properties of field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have led to the development of variations of the planar MOSFET in recent decades. They frequently differ in the design of their doping profile or the selection of material. For instance, there is a difference between lateral (i.e., those aligned parallel to the surface) and vertical designs. Whereas lateral transistors (LDMOS) are primarily used in radio-frequency applications for telecommunications, the vertical design is mainly used in the field of power electronics


Decimal prefix for usage in the international system of units. Mega stands for 106 = 1,000,000 = 1 million, or "M" for short. In the world of information technology, Mega stands for 220 = 1,048,576, e.g. megabyte (MByte).

Micro-electro-mechanical system. A micro-electro-mechanical system, or simply a microsystem, is a miniaturized device, assembly or part that contains components of minute dimensions (only measurable in micrometers) that work together as a system. Usually a microsystem consists of one or more sensors, actuators and control electronics on one chip. Infineon manufactures microphones as MEMS. Due to their diminutive size, low power consumption, good shielding from interfering signals and low-cost production, these types of microphone are being increasingly installed in mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, cameras, and accessories such as headsets and hearing aids.

A microprocessor integrated into a single IC combined with memory and interfaces, which functions as an embedded system. Logic circuits of the highest complexity can be designed in a microcontroller and controlled by software.

Metric linear measure, corresponding to the millionth part of a meter (10-6). Symbol: µm. As an example, the diameter of a single human hair is 0.1 millimeters, or 100 µm.

Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor. MOSFET is currently the most widely used transistor architecture. MOSFETs are used both in highly integrated circuits and in power electronics as special power MOSFETs.


Metric unit of length. Corresponds to the billionth part of a meter (10–9); the symbol is nm. The diameter of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is roughly 2 nanometers. Fabrication features in the semiconductor industry are now measured in nanometers (see 40-/65-/90-nanometer technology).

Gross cash position less short-term and long-term debt.

Near field communication. An international communication standard for contactless data exchange over short distances. The initial drafts of the communication standard appeared several years ago, but the technology did not break through until 2011 when it was included in the first smartphones. NFC can be used as an access key to content on terminals and for services such as cashless payment and paperless ticketing.


The term used to describe the minimal resistance of a field-effect transistor. The correct way to write it is RDS(on). The R stands for the electrical resistance. The index DS stands for the connections to the field-effect transistor, which are known as Drain (D) and Source (S). “On” stands for the state of the field-effect transistor.

Infineon’s brand name for low-voltage power transistors for voltages between 20 and 300 V.

One of three marketplaces for trading over-the-counter stocks provided and operated by the OTC Markets Group.


Decimal prefix for usage in the international system of units. Peta stands for 1015 = 1 quadrillion, abbreviated "P", for example petabyte (PByte).

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles combine the advantages of battery-powered vehicles with those powered by combustion engines. On short trips and in urban traffic, the vehicle is driving purely electrically, and, therefore, quietly, emission-free and economically. The electric power is supplied by the battery. The combustion engine is used on longer trips or whenever the battery needs recharging, making it possible to drive much further. The battery can be charged either using mains power or via the recuperation of braking energy.

Over the last 30 years power semiconductors have mostly replaced electromechanical solutions in the areas of drive technology as well as power management and supply, due to their ability to form high energy flows almost at will. The advantage of these components is their ability to switch extremely rapidly (typically within a fraction of a second) between the “open” and the “closed” state. With the fast sequences of on/off pulses, almost any form of energy flow can be created, e.g. a sinus wave.

Power transistor is a term used in electronics to refer to a transistor for switching or controlling large voltages, currents and outputs. There is no standard method of differentiating between transistors for signal processing and power transistors. Power transistors are mainly produced in packages that enable installation on heat sinks, as it is otherwise impossible to handle the dissipation loss of several kilowatts that occurs with some types and applications (see power semiconductor).

Proportional share in net income and equity attributable to outside shareholders, and not to shareholders of the Infineon Group’s parent company.

In the case of a put option, the buyer acquires a contractual right to sell a stipulated quantity of an underlying asset (e.g. a share) at a predetermined date (European option) at a specified price (underlying price). In return, the issuer receives an option premium from the buyer of the put option.


Shares registered in the name of a certain person. This person’s details and number of shares are registered in the Company’s share ledger in accordance with securities regulations. Only individuals registered in the Company’s share ledger are considered shareholders of the Company and are, for example, able to exercise their rights at the Company’s Annual General Meeting.

Repowering in a renewables context generally refers to the replacement of old wind turbines with newer, more powerful and more efficient models. This is done in order to make better use of the available locations and increase the installed capacity while simultaneously reducing the number of turbines.

Return on Capital Employed is defined as the operating result after tax from continuing operations divided by capital employed. RoCE shows the linkage between profitability and capital resources required to run the business.


A special diode that has a metal-semiconductor junction rather than a semiconductor-semiconductor junction. The most frequently used semiconductor material up to 250 Volts is silicon. Silicon carbide (SiC) is used for voltages in excess of 300 Volts (see Silicon Carbide). SiC Schottky diodes offer a number of advantages over conventional diodes in power electronics. When used together with IGBT transistors, it is possible to dramatically reduce switching losses in the diode itself, as well as in the transistor. The name derives from the German physicist Walter Schottky (1886 – 1976).

Infineon defines Segment Result as operating income (loss) excluding: the net amount of asset impairments and reversals thereof; the impact on earnings of restructuring and closures; share-based compensation expense; acquisition-related depreciation/amortization and other expenses; gains (losses) on sales of assets, businesses, or interests in subsidiaries as well as other income (expense), including litigation costs. This is the measure that Infineon uses to evaluate the operating performance of its segments.

An indicator of operating performance, calculated as the percentage of Segment Result in relation to revenue.

Crystalline material. Its electrical conductivity can be changed as desired by the application of doping materials (most often boron or phosphorus). Semiconductors include silicon or germanium. The term is also applied to ICs made of these materials.

A shrink in the context of semiconductor manufacturing is the process of scaling manufacturing down from an existing feature size to the next smaller feature size. The move to smaller structures generally involves shrinking all semiconductor circuit elements equally, although there are some exceptions. Chip function is unchanged, but since the chips are smaller, more can be squeezed onto each wafer and manufacturing costs fall.

A chemical element with semiconducting characteristics. Silicon is the most important raw material in the semiconductor industry.

Compound semiconductor made from silicon (chemical symbol Si) and carbon (chemical symbol C). The abbreviation is SiC. Because of its special material properties (e.g. good thermal conductivity), SiC is used for Schottky diodes, as well as elsewhere (see Schottky diode).

Subscriber Identity Module cards. Chip cards that are inserted into mobile phones in order to identify the user within the network. They are used by mobile phone networks to provide connections to their customers.

Plastic card with built-in memory chip and/or microcontroller, which can be combined with a Personal Identification Number (PIN).

A smartphone is an internet-ready mobile telephone that provides more computer functionality and connectivity than a modern conventional mobile telephone. Current smartphones generally allow users to upgrade their device with new functions by installing additional programs known as apps.

Apart from the generally improved robustness of power semiconductor components with regard to high current and voltage peaks and the reduction of on-state resistance, an increasing number of functions are being integrated in the component. These components are then commonly known as Smart Power Devices and, apart from protective circuitries (such as thermal and overcurrent protection), they also contain more complex functions such as simple microcontrollers or analog-digital converters. The special technology needed to produce Smart Power Devices is known as Smart Power Technology, such as SPT9 from Infineon.

A switch-mode power supply is an electronic module that transforms an AC voltage into a DC voltage. Switch-mode power supplies are more efficient than mains transformers and can be more compact and lighter than conventional power supplies containing a heavy transformer with a ferrous core. Switch-mode power supplies are mainly used in PCs, notebooks and servers. However, they also achieve a very high level of efficiency even at low power, so they are increasingly found in plug-in power supply units, for example as chargers for mobile phones.


A portable computer that can be used in a number of ways including as a note pad. The tablet is operated by applying a stylus or, increasingly, finger contact directly onto a touch-sensitive screen. Recently tablets have come to be used primarily for internet access and hence as a terminal for cloud computing (see cloud computing).

Decimal prefix for usage in the international system of units. Tera stands for 1012 = 1 trillion, abbreviated “T”, for example terabyte (TByte)

A wafer (see Wafer) is typically around 350 microns (μm; see Micron) thick when sawn into individual chips. A thin wafer is one that has been polished down to less than 200 microns thick (a human hair or a sheet of paper, by comparison, is about 60 microns thick). Thin wafer technology offers benefits: Thinner chips mean losses can be reduced and the heat generated can be dissipated more effectively. Another advantage is that electrically active patterns can be produced on the backside as well, enabling the chip to provide completely new functions. Thin wafer chips also allow more compact packages.

Trusted Platform Module. A chip that adds elementary security functions such as license and data protection to a computer or similar device. TPMs can be integrated into tablet PCs, smartphones and consumer electronics as well as PCs and notebooks. A trusted computing platform (see Trusted Computing) can be created by combining a specially configured operating system and appropriate software with a device containing a TPM.

A transistor is an electronic component for switching and amplifying electrical signals. Transistors are used in fields including telecommunications, computer systems and power electronics both as discrete components and by the million in integrated circuits.

Trusted Computing means that the hardware and software used in PCs, as well as other computer-controlled systems, such as mobile phones, can be controlled. This is achieved by means of an additional chip, the Trusted Platform Module (TPM), which can use cryptography to measure the integrity of the hardware and of the software data structures, while also saving these values in a verifiable way.


Variable Speed Drive. Electronic control units for controlling the speed (revolutions per minute) of electric motors.


Thin slice of semiconductor material from which the actual chip is produced. Typical diameters for wafers currently are 200 millimeters and 300 millimeters.

Working capital consists of current assets less cash and cash equivalents, financial investments and assets held for sale less current liabilities excluding short-term debt and current maturities of long-term debt excluding liabilities classified as held for sale.


A decimal prefix for usage in the international system of units. Zetta stands for 1021 = 1 sextillion, abbreviated “Z”, for example zettabyte (ZByte).